QUALITY WOLVES BLOG

Product Development Glossary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
A/B Testing
A method of user experience research, comparing feedback for two or more variants of the same web or app page.

Agile Software Development
An iterative and flexible approach to product development which splits work into small parts and focuses on the delivery of business value. An agile team has a capability to continuously evaluate requrements, plans, and results, quickly adapting to changes.

Android
One of two most popular mobile operational systems (OS). It's developed by Google, and the latest version is Android 11.

API
An application programming interface (API) is a specification of interactions with software components, as well as the actual software component you interact with. It simplifies communication of products and services with other products and services.

.apk
Android Package (APK) is an app package file format used by the Android OS to install mobile apps, games, and middleware.

APNs
Apple Push Notification service (APNs) is a cloud service that allows to send push notifications to users from apps installed from the App Store.

App Store
There're two meanings: 1) app stores are digital distribution platforms that allow to browse and install apps, games, and middleware; 2) the App Store is one of such platforms, developed by Apple for iOS & iPadOS.

Apple Pay
A payment system developed by Apple and powered by NFC. It can be used to pay for apps and games on the App Store or both digital and physical goods within apps.

AR
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience where objects of the real world are complemented by virtual enhancements — in most cases, by computer-generated images and sounds.

ASO
App Store Optimization is a process of enhancing the elements of app listings (text and images) in order to attract organic traffic.
B
BaaS
Back end-as-a-Service (BaaS) is a cloud service model in which BaaS vendors provide pre-written software so that developers only need to write and mantain frontend.

Back End
A server-side part of an app or website that takes care of such features as cloud storage and hosting, user authentication, database management, updating, push notifications, etc.

Badges
An indicator that a user has unread notifications in an app, usually looking as a circle in the corner of an app icon.

Beacons
A BLE-based hardware device that detects smartphones and transmits data to them within a certain range. For example, it can send a promo message to a potential customer near your store, if their device has Bluetooth on.

Best Practice
A method that has been proved to produce desired outcomes.

Beta
A phase in software testing in which a share of intended audience tries to use a product.

Big Data
A combination of data collected by companies that can be used to analyze user's behavior, get insights, create predictive models, improve personalization and customer experience, and so on. It is characterized by 6 Vs: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, value, and variability.

BLE
Bluetooth Low Energe (BLE) is a variant of Bluetooth technology, focused on conserving power. It's a keystone of IoT development, helping devices to communicate with smartphones and smartwatches.

Branding
A set of distinctive features that serve as a company's identifier. Examples of branding include logo, colours, positioning, value proposition — even sounds linked to the perception of a brand.

Build
A version of a program that is at least somewhat functional but hasn't been released yet.
C
CAN Bus
Controller Area Network bus, or CAN bus, is a standard of data transfer used in cars, tractors, industrial robots and other devices which enables their microcontrollers to communicate with electronic control units (ECUs) and apps. This article covers the topic in more detail.

Case Study
A documented exploration of product development, showing the internal processes of a company and its approach to business challenges of a client.

Chatbot
A software that simulates conversations through text or voice interactions. Nowadays, its primary use is fetching fitting answer templates to customers' questions.

CI/CD
Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Delivery (CD) are a combined set of practices, originating from the Extreme Programming paradigm and prominently used in DevOps. These approaches focus on frequent updates and closing the gap between development and operations, automating such tasks as building, testing, and deployment.

CMS
Content Management System (CMS) is used to manage digital content and provide it to end users.

Core Data
A framework provided by Apple in iOS and macOS. It describes data in terms of entities and their relationships and allows it to be serialized into XML, binary, or SQLite stores. Core Data provides object lifecycle and object graph management, including persistence.

Cross-platform App Development
Creating apps that are compatible with both iOS and Android without a need to write an entirely different source code for each platform. Types of cross-platform development include hybrid, rapid (RMAD) and progressive web app development. In most cases, such apps are less responsive and stable than native ones.

CTA
Call to Action (CTA) describes the next step that an app or web page encourages a user to take. It's usually a verb in the imperative mood.

Customer Journey Map
Also abbreaviated as CJM, a Customer Journey Map describes how users interact with and experience a product. It's one of the most important methods in CX and represents overview of all connections (including emotional) that users have with products.

CX
Customer Experience (CX) is a result of interactions between a company and a user of their products over the duration of their relationship.
D
DevOps
A combination of words "Development" and "Operations," DevOps is a set of methodologies that promotes collaboration between app development and IT operations teams. Its main benefits come from using CI/CD, real-time monitoring and incident management systems, collaboration platforms, and cloud computing. DevOps environments can coexist with other development frameworks, such as Agile development or Lean programming.

Database
A collection of data that is organized in an accessible and manageable way.

Debugging
Identifying a programm, hardware or system problem, isolating its source and solving the problem.

Decryption
A process of converting encrypted data in an unecrypted form that is readable by a human or machine. It may be manual or automatic and use a set of keys or passwords.

Deep Linking
Using URIs to make access to elements of mobile apps easier. For example, it's possible to send a push notification with a deep link that leads a user right to a specific item.

Deliverable
A product or service that can be delivered to a client after development.

Deployment
Getting software or hardware to run up properly in its environment. Deployment is used interchangeably with the word "implementation."

Device ID
A number used to identify a smartphone or tablet.

Display Advertising
A form of advertising using banners to deliver ads to site or app visitors.

Django
A Python-based open-source web framework that takes hassle out of creating database-driven websites. It's versatile, scalable, and secure, so that website backends developed with Django are easy to mantain and modify.
E
Edge Computing
A distributed IT architecture in which data is processed as close to its source as possible. It allows to avoid latency issues and networks disruptions that happen with centralized data centres.

Embedded System
A combination of hardware and software dedicated to perform a specific function within a larger system. Their functionality can be fixed or programmable. Examples of embedded systems can be found in mobile devices, smart homes and cars, industrial robots.

Encryption
A process of encoding data, usually for security purposes.

EV
Electrical vehicles (EV) uses electric motors instead of internal combustion engines.

Expedited App Review
The App Store gives an opportunity to request for an Expedited App Review, if your app has to be fixed as soon as possible.

Extension
A software module that customizes a web browser, adding new features.

Extranet
A private network that helps to maintain the secure exchange of business information with suppliers, vendors, partners, or clients.
F
FDD
Feature driven development (FDD) is a customer-centric development methodology. It's designed for projects with large development teams and well-established products. Developers organize work in quick iterations, using customer requests as the main basis for new features and following pre-defined standards.

Feature Creep
An iterative and flexible approach to product development which splits work into small parts and focuses on the delivery of business value. An agile team has a capability to continuously evaluate requrements, plans, and results, quickly adapting to changes.

Feature Request
Also referred to as requirements creep or scope creep, it's a tendency for product requirements to grow during development beyond limits described in the scope of works.

Featured Apps
Apps picked by app stores to appear on their main pages. You can apply to get featured, using this link for iOS apps and this link for Android apps. Keep in mind that in order to increase your chances, your app has to have a good rating, optimised listing, and features based on the latest Apple or Google technologies.

Framework
A layered structure describing what programs or functions should be used and their relations.

Freemium
A business model which name comes from the combination of words "free" and "premium." The product provider provides basic features at no cost but charges payment for getting access to supplemental or advanced features.

Front End
A client-side part of an app or website that includes all user interface features and allows a user to interact with them.

Full-stack Development
Development of both back end (server side) and front end (client side).
G
Gamification
A set of activities inspired by game design principles that can be used to increase engagement.

Gap Analysis
Comparison of current perfomance metrics with desired results and outlining a strategy how to allocate resources in order to close a gap.

GCM (now FCM)
Formerly known as Google Cloud Messaging, Firebase Cloud Messaginf (FCM) is a mobile notification platform developed by Google that allows sending push notifications to Android, iOS, and web apps.

Geofencing
A software feature using GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi or cellular data to trigger an action when a user enters or leaves a predetermined area.

Gestures
Movements used by users to interact with app interfaces. For example, swipes or taps.

Google Pay
A payment system developed by Google and powered by NFC.

Google Play Store
A digital distribution platform developed by Google for Android OS that allows to browse and install apps, games, and middleware.

GPS
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a radionavigation technology based on satellites.

GUI
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a system of interactive visual components.
H
Haptics
A method of kinaesthetic communication that enhances the experience of interacting with apps in addition to visual and auditory feedback.

HIG
Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) are a set of design recommendations created for app developers. They aim to provide consistent and intuitive experience for platform users. The examples include Apple's HIG, Material Design by Google, Fluent design by Microsoft.

Hotfix
A small update that is used to address a specific problem in software.

Hybrid App Development
An approach to product development that tries to combine merits of both native and HTML5 development.
I
IaaS
Infrastructure as a service is a type of cloud platforms that provides computing resources. For example, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

IAP
In-app purchase (IAP) is a digital product bought within an app. The App Store and Google Play aim to keep all app purchases within their IAP systems.

IDE
Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a software suite for writing and testing software.

IDFA
The Identifier for Advertisers (IDFA) is an identifier assigned by Apple to a user's device. It can be used to track users without revealing their personal data and deliver customized ads to them.

In-app Messages
A type of mobile message that engages a user while they're active in an app. For example, rating prompts asking to review an app are in-app messages.

Infotainment
A combination of words "information" and "entertainment," infotainment is a car system that provides access to the Internet, navigation assistance, music streaming and other informational and entertaining features for a driver and passengers. There're out-of-the-box solutions like Apple CarPlay and Android Auto, but most auto manufacturers prefer to create their own proprietary infotainment systems.

iOS
One of two most popular mobile operational systems (OS). It's developed by Apple, and the latest version is iOS 14.

IoT
Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interconnected devices, machines, objects, animals or people. Every part or participant of IoT is provided with a unique identifier (UID) and can transfer data to each other, using embedded systems.

IoV
Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a distributed system that uses data created by connected cars and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). It aims to achieve real-time communication of vehicles with drivers (IVS), pedestrians (V2P), other vehicles (V2V), roadside infrastructure(V2I), fleet management systems. Vehicle to Everything (V2X) is an umbrella term for these networks.

.ipa
iOS App Store Package (IPA) is an app package file format used by iOS & iPad devices to install mobile apps, games, and middleware.

Iteration
A single section of a development cycle that usually takes a week or two.
J
Jailbreaking
Removal of manufacturer or carrier restrictions from a device. Usually, it targets iPhone or iPad devices, but other devices can get jailbroken as well — for example, there's a bounty on jailbreaking Oculus Quest 2, a VR headset from Facebook.

Java
An object-oriented programming language that is heavily used in development of Android apps, edge and IoT devices. Just as DOOM, it runs on most devices in the world.

JavaScript
JavaScript (JS) is a programming language used in front end development to implement logic and scripting capability for HTML pages. It's an essential part of any web app and enables interactivity of web pages. Despite its name, it has little to no similarities with Java.

JSON
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a language-independent, text-based format that represents simple data structures and objects. It can be used as an alternative to XML.
K
K-line
A low-speed and single-wire system mostly used as a diagnosis network in vehicles and robots. It can also transfer data from an electric control unit (ECU) to any device via Bluetooth.

Kanban
A visual system that uses cards to keep track of work progress. This framework is commonly used to implement Agile development and focuses on reducing time to market for a product.

Kotlin
An object-oriented programming language that interoperates with Java and aims to replace it, being a more modern and simplified version. In 2019, Google announced that Kotlin is a preffered language for creating Android apps. It can also power server-side and web apps.

KPIs
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are business metrics used to measure and analyze company's progress. For example, a retail company can track its success by checking the percentage of abandoned transactions.

Kurento
A set of client APIs and a web real-time communications server with WebRTC support that is used to develop streaming mobile and web apps. It allows to create apps with such features as broadcasting, conferencing, recording, media processing, etc.
L
Landing Page
A standalone web page, describing a product. It usually includes its description and CTA, serving as an amplifier of a marketing message. Landing pages motivate users to complete a desired action — for example, purchase or subscribing to an email campaign.

Laravel
An open-source PHP framework with a rich set of features for web app development. It follows model-view-controller (MVC) architecture pattern and enables creating web apps in a more structured, pragmatic and scalable way.

Latency
A delay between an input and its desired outcome. Low latency contributes to better user experience.

LBS
Location-based Services (LBS) is a term describing software that heavily relies on geolocation in order to provide information to users, for example, navigation apps and software networks.

Lean Software Development
A concept that aims to maximize development efficiency, streamlining every part of its lifecycle and focusing on product value and communication with customers. Lean principles are considered to be the important part of Agile methodologies.

Legacy App
An outdated app that might still work but lacks compatibility with OS or browser updates.

Library
A collection of precompiled and reusable routines that a developer can call upon to avoid writing every part of a program from scratch. For example, libraries can deal with date and time formats, while a developer concentrates on creating more unique parts of a source code.

LiDAR
A combination of words "light" and "radar", LiDAR is a laser-based method of measuring distance to objects. Self-driving cars and AR apps can use lidars to map the environment.

Localization
Adapting a product to a language and culture of a desired audience. It helps to achieve better user experience than word-for-word translation of UX writing.

Low-code Development Platform
A development platform that allows to create web and mobile apps, reducing the amount of hand-coded programming.
M
Material Design
A set of design guidelines developed by Google.

Microcontroller
An integrated curcuit that controls a singular function in an electronic device as a part of an embedded system. It contains a central processing unit (CPU), memory and programmable input/output (I/O). Microcontroller units (MCU) play a vital part in both IoT and IIoT, enabling connectivity in automotive, manufacturing, industrial automation, healthcare, and other verticals.

Microprocessor
A computer processor on a microchip that combines several controlling functions. It's capable of processing binary data and contains only a CPU.

Mobile Analytics
A tool to track app usage metrics, such as MAU/DAU, LTV, ARPU, and other indicators of app performance.

Mobility
In automotive, mobility is public and private transportation of both passengers and goods. New mobility opportunities include carsharing, fleet management, shift to EV.

Mockup
A demonstration of a product design that shows color schemes, layouts, icons, fonts and overall feel of an app or website.

Monetization
A way to receive revenue, adding features or components to apps or websites that enable payments. For example, an app using the freemium model of monetization can lock part of its functionality behind a paywall. Other examples of monetization models are free-to-play, in-app purchases, free trials, subscriptions, premium. Sometimes, several monetizations models are used at once: for instance, paymium combines premium and in-app purchases.

MQTT
MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a messaging protocol that distributes telemetry data, using resource-constrained network clients. It's used in machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and finds application in IoT.

MVP
Minimum Viable Product is a version of a product that includes only the most vital features. It aims to check product/market fit and get feedback from early customers.

MVT
Minimum Viable Team is the smallest team that can achieve a desired outcome (usually, creating an MVP). Most MVTs include a developer, designer, and product owner. In some cases, it's just one person that fulfills every role.
N
Native App Development
A method of user experience research, comparing feedback for two or more variants of the same web or app page.

Native Web AR
An iterative and flexible approach to product development which splits work into small parts and focuses on the delivery of business value. An agile team has a capability to continuously evaluate requrements, plans, and results, quickly adapting to changes.

Navigation
One of two most popular mobile operational systems (OS). It's developed by Google, and the latest version is Android 11.

NDA
Non-disclosure Agreement (NDA) An application programming interface (API) is a specification of interactions with software components, as well as the actual software component you interact with. It simplifies communication of products and services with other products and services.

NFC
Android Package (APK) is an app package file format used by the Android OS to install mobile apps, games, and middleware.

No-code Development Platform
A development platform that allows to create web and mobile apps through graphical means and configuration instead of hand-coded programming. For example, this website is built on Tilda, one of such platforms. These solutions aren't that flexible and scalable but can be used to test hypotheses and handle simpler functions.

Notification Centre
There're two meanings: 1) app stores are digital distribution platforms that allow to browse and install apps, games, and middleware; 2) the App Store is one of such platforms, developed by Apple for iOS & iPadOS.
O
OAuth
Open Authorization (OAuth) is an open standard framework. It provides users with a secure delegated access to websites without exposing users' credentials to 3rd-party services.

OBD
On-board Diagnostics (OBD) is the ability of a vehicle to self-diagnose and report automotive data. The most wide-spread standard is OBD-II, capable of streaming real-time data from electronic control units of a vehicle.

Objective-C
A superset of the C programming language, providing object-oriented capabilities. It was the main programming language for Apple devices until the introduction of Swift in 2014. Nowadays, it's still widely used in iOS development, especially, for legacy app support.

OCR
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the use of technologies to identify printed or handwritten text.

Open Source Software
A software whose source code is freely available for use or modification by other developers.

OpenGL
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is the API used to define 2D and 3D images.

OS
Operating system (OS) is a program that manages all other software in a device or computer.

OTA Update
An over-the-air (OTA) update is delivered to a device wirelessly, using Wi-Fi or mobile networks. At the moment, it's the most popular way of updates delivery for mobile and IoT devices, including even smart cars.

Out of the box
A feature that works immediately after getting access to software.

Outsourcing
Hiring a third party company to provide services for your company, for example, product development. It allows to lower costs and quickly get access to expertise.
P
PHP
An open-source script programming language that is often used for back end development.

Pivot
Changing a product functionality, positioning, and strategy in order to achieve a better product/market fit.

PoC
Proof of Concept (PoC) helps to understand if an idea is feasible. Unlike MVP, it doesn't aim to check a product/market fit and analyze UX.

PoS
Point of Sale (PoS) is a feature allows to complete a purchase of a physical or digital product. It calculates the final cost, taxes, and other fees and redirects a customer to a payment gateway.

Pooling
In geolocation, receiving data from a device in order to determine its location.

PostgreSQL
An open-source database management system.

Proprietary Software
A technology that is exclusively owned by a company.

Push Notifications
Messages sent via APNs or FCM to mobile devices. They can be sent by an app or website even if user doesn't use them at the moment but previously gave their permission to receive push notifications.

PWA
Progressive Web App (PWA) is a web app that tries to behave as close as possible to a mobile app. They're built with web technologies, such as JavaScript, HTML, and CSS.

Python
An open-source object-oriented programming language that can be used for multiple purposes, from a website back end to neural networks.
Q
QA
Quality Assurance (QA) is a process of examination if a product works properly and meets the requirements.

QR Code

Quick Responce (QR) code is a type of barcode that can be used to access information. For example, a user can be directed to a website or app store after scanning it with a camera.

Quick Look (AR)
A native feature of ARKit which launches a 3D model viewer right from the browser and allows to see them in Augmented Reality.
R
Ranking
A position in an app store category or search request.

React
An open-source, frontend JavaScript library that can be used to create a website or mobile UI.

React Native
An open-source JavaScript framework that can be used to create apps for both iOS and Android. This is one of the most popular tools in cross-platform development.

Reality Composer
A tool developed by Apple and focused on working with 3D models for AR, for example, adding animations and audio, managing their order and triggers, etc. Reality Composer is available as a part of Xcode for Mac and as a stand-alone app for iOS.

RealityKit
An framework that receives data from ARKit and integrates virtual objects in Augmented Reality.

Redux
An open-source JavaScript library that can be used to manage app state.

Refactoring
A process of refining the code structure that doesn't change its functionality but improves the design and performance.

RFID
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are used to identify objects. They're made up of a scanning antenna, transceiver and transponder. This technology serves as a basis for NFC.

RFP
Request for Proposal (RFP) is a document that contains project requirements and aims to receive time and budget estimates from service providers in response.

RWD
Responsive Web Design (RWD) is an approach to web design and development. It suggests that design elements should adapt to various screen sizes, platforms, orientations, and other specifications of a user's device.
S
SaaS
Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software model which is used to distribute web apps. The provider charges clients for providing the access to the web app and APIs, usually picking the subscription payment model.

Scene Viewer
A viewer using ARCore to view and interact with 3D models and AR on Android devices.

Scrum
A sprint-based Agile framework, splitting work into goals that can be completed in short iterations (usually, every iteration lasts for 2 weeks).

SDK
Software Development Kit (SDK) is a set of tools and programs that can be used to develop apps. SDKs provide different capabilities like sending push notifications, tracking user behavior, showing ads, etc. with little to no development costs.

Source Code
A fundamental part of any program. To create it, developers can use a text editor, a visual programming tool or IDE.

SOW
Statement of Work (SoW) is a document that describes activities, timelines, and deliverables of a project. Essentially, it's a project plan.

Splash Screen
A page that shows up while an app is loading.

SSO
Single Sign On (SSO) is a user authentication feature that allows a user to access multiple apps with just one set of credentials.

Subscription
A payment model in which a client pays once in some period of time (usually, once a month or a year) to renew access to a product.

Swift
A programming lanfuage developed by Apple and open-source community for iOS, WatchOS, macOS and tvOS devices.
T
TDD
Test Driven Development (TDD) is a method of development that unterlaces unit testing, programming, and refactoring. First, a programmer creates a unit test, then a code that can pass the test, and refactors the source code, improving performance but not changing functionality.

Technical Debt
A concept in the Agile development, decribing results of picking an easier and quicker solution among the alternatives. As it can inflict more rework costs in the future, technical debt should be tracked and prioritized for refactoring.

Technology Fusion
Transformation of technologies through the combination of knowledge from different fields.

Technology Stack
A set of tools needed to implement a product idea. Tech stack describes what programming languages, frameworks, libraries, etc. are used in the process.

TestFlight
A digital distribution platform developed by Apple for testing beta versions of iOS & iPad OS apps. It's possible to install test builds, just using a link generated by TestFlight.

Third Party
An entity that is somehow involved in the interaction between two parties. For example, an analytics SDK can be the third party between an app and a user, gathering data about user behavior in the app.

Time to Market
Time between a project start and its introduction to market.

Touch ID
A fingerprint recognition feature that allows users of Apple devices to unlock them or confirm purchases via Apple Pay.

tree.js
A JavaScript library that allows to embed 3D objects on websites and often uses the WebGL renderer to draw them.

Typescript
A programming language developed by Microsoft that aims to get rid of shortcomings of JavaScript that appear in development of enterprise apps.
U
UDID
User Device Identifier is a 40-character string assigned to Apple devices. It can be used to track subscriber behaviour by 3rd parties, for example, apps or analytics services.

UI
User Interface (UI) is a means of interacting with programs. It usually includes visual design elements like screens or buttons, but other types of UI also exist, for example, voice or command line interfaces.

UI Kit
A set of graphic files that can be used to create a product UI.

Update
Replacing a previous product version with a newer one. Update usually includes new features, fixes, or other changes.

Usability
A capability of a product to produce an outcome desired by a user. Usability testing helps to make mobile and web apps as responsive and user-friendly as possible.

Use Case
Use cases describe the system functionality from a user's point of view. Business use cases focus on business goals and ways to achieve them, omitting technical details, while system use cases describe technical requirements and processes.

User Flow
A physical process of walking through a product, using its UI.

User Stories
Description of app features, for example, picking the destination in a taxi hailing app.

UX
User Experience (UX) describes emotions and attitudes a user goes through, using a product.

UWB
Ultra-wideband (UWB) is a wireless communication protocol that operates at the very high radio frequences. It's one of wireless connectivity technologies and an alternative to Bluetooth, NFC, and Wi-Fi that can easily coexist with these technologies. UWB is notable for high accuracy of measurements and detection.
V
Value Stream Mapping
A visualization tool that records all the repeatable steps that should be finished in order to bring a product to market. This helps to avoid steps that proved to be ineffective in providing value.

Velocity
A number of available story units for the next iteration of the Agile development process. It's calculated on basis of successfully delivered user stories.

Vendor
A seller of goods of services.

Version
An identifier assigned to a release build of an app, OS, or platform. It usually consists of at least two numbers separated by a period. The first number indicates significant changes of a product, such as huge improvement in functionality, while the second number shows a number of versions with small updates or fixes.

Version Control
A practice that ensures proper tracking and management of product versions.

Virtual Machine
Emulation of an operating system (OS) that functions as a separate computer.

Voice Search
A search method that uses voice recognition to provide search results. It's based on the text-to-speech input instead of the text input.

VPN
Virtual Private Network (VPN) helps to obscure data transmission, creating an encrypted connection. They also help to access proprietary networks and visit region-locked websites.
W
WatchOS and Wear OS
Operational systems developed for smartwatches connected to smartphones. WatchOS is developed for Apple Watch by Apple and based on iOS. Wear OS is developed by Google and based on Android. It's used in a variety of wearables by such manufacturers as Huawei.

Waterfall
A linear approach to the software development life cycle that separates it into seven non-overlapping steps. It's fixed in terms of requirements and timeline and requires every step to be thoroughly documented. This model is rarely seen in startups and SMBs as it lacks flexibility and attention to customer feedback but might work well in enterprise companies that have huge pool of resources and data.

Wearable
An electronic device that is physically worn by individuals: smartwatches, AR/VR helmets, fitness trackers.

Web Analytics
A tool to track website usage metrics and understand how well it performs.

Web App
A program that runs on a web server. A user can use a web browser to get access to a web app. Unlike websites that only allow a user to access information, web apps are highly interactive and allow a user to perform tasks, for example, import and analyze data.

WebRTC
Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) is an open source project that supports peer-to-peer exchange of audio, video, and generic data. It's available for all browsers and OS, allowing developers to create robust audio and video streaming mobile and web apps.

Webview
Rendering a web page within an app.

Wireframe
A set of early-stage designs that demonstrate the app or website structure. It shows placement of content and help to identify UX challenges.

WMS
Warehouse Management System (WMS) is a system that allows companies to control and manage processes and operations in logistics and manufacturing. It ensures that goods and materials won't get lost in warehouses or cause losses.

Workaround
A method used to achieve a desired outcome when conventional ways aren't working.
X
XCode
A central part of the iOS software development kit (SDK). It's an interactive development environment (IDE) that allows to build apps for the whole Apple ecosystem: namely, devices using iOS, iPad OS, WatchOS, and macOS.

xHE-AAC
An audio codec and compression format developed by Fraunhofer IIS. It's recommended by Apple for audio streaming, including audio for video platforms, podcasts, music, etc. xHE-AAC is designed for adaptive streaming and can use bit rates in the range between 12 and 500 kbps, so it continues streaming even if the Internet connection signal is weak.

XML
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines how to encode documents in both human-readable and machine-readable ways.

XP
Extreme Programming (XP) is an approach to programming that puts business results first and encourages creating simple products with limited functionality that can be expanded later. The XP teams expect every member to participate in all stages of product development: from design to deployment, minimizing the need in documentation.
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